Researching artists and materials for Final major project ideas.

I am interested in finding out more about materials that have been successfully used to create sculptural pieces. I decided to look if bubble-gum had been used before as I was walking to my car today and seeing it on the pavement around Blackburn cathedral.

Maurizio Savini makes sculptures from chewed bubblegum and manipulates and sculpts it  while its warm with a knife like traditional materials such as clay.

“The most important step is the fixing of the sculptures with formaldehyde and antibiotic.”

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/4246750/Artist-creates-life-size-sculptures-using-chewed-bubblegum.html (03/02/16)

chewing-gum-sculpture

I have been thinking of making sculptures out of photographs for my FMP after seeing the Cilla black sculpture by Emma Rodgers and Andy Edwards and learning that Cilla’s 60’s dress was made up of memorable photographs. While researching I came across Oliver Herrig who is an experimental artist and has used Photo sculpture.  Herring starts with a polystyrene base and pastes thousands of cut up photographs to the base. “Gloria”, one of his most famous sculptures, is of a girl leaning against a wall in a colorful flower dress holding her necklace. Herring took pictures from every angle of her and he cut and pasted them on the base to form the sculpture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Herring (06/02/16)

Image result for oliver herrig

A photo-sculpture is the reproduction of persons, animals, and things, in 3-dimensions by taking a series of photos in the round and using them as synchronized photo projections to create a sculpture.[1] The process was invented and patented by French artist (painter, sculptor and photographer) François Willème in 1860. He took a series of photographs from around a subject and used them to carve a likeness of the figure.[2] Contemporary photo sculptures are obtained through a process of 3D scanning and 3D printing. The results are small statues that represent the portrayed entity.

Examples of photographic sculptures include the work of experimental artist Oliver Herring.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photo_sculpture (06/02/16)

I have been thinking of creating a life size 3D sculpture of my identical Twins embracing using wire. Possibly in cube style form on identical sized boxes to start with then wire cubes and wire drawings like my birds and fixing the photographs to them to make a sculpture inspired by Oliver Herring.

I have had a quick chat with my Tutor and she told me to look at David Hockney/ Hockney joinery and cubism. Which has also lead me to look at Maurizio Galimberti which I will explore further.

Image result for David Hockney Cubism

Maurizio Galimberti.

Image result for maurizio galimberti,

Lino printing

 

I took the top of the ‘Design for a pendant’ image which shows the sun and moon slightly larger and carved it out of lino. I didn’t change the composition in this one. I have shown a picture of the Lino after it has been inked as the before picture isn’t clear.

 

I experimented with a few colours on white paper and mixed them as I went along so that I had less cleaning up to do in-between. I want to try this as a repetitive print like on wallpaper or curtains. I would also like to see it on fabric or wood so will experiment further in the week.

I thought I would look into British Printmakers and I came across Angie Lewin who works in Linocut, wood engraving, Lithography, and screen printing. Angie’s designs appear to be of wild flowers and grasses. Angie studied BA (Hons) Fine Art Printmaking at Central St. Martins College of Art and Design, followed by a year’s postgraduate printmaking at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts.

http://www.angielewin.co.uk/

 

 

 

laser cutting research.

 

Laser print designs feature in commercial environments – retail, hotels, bars, restaurants, leisure, offices, financial institutions as well as luxury residences and apartments.

Decorative dividing partitions; suspended ceilings; balustrade and stairway infill; functional, attractive security screens, doors and corporate branding make for innovative interior design schemes. Laser cut panels feature in exterior façades to complement external cladding and can be used for refurbishment projects and also for decorative art installations and landscape architecture. http://www.milesandlincoln.com/

While I was looking on Pinterest for some inspiration I came across Jim Sanborn an American sculptor, Best known for the Cryptographic copper sculpture  Kryptos located in the grounds of the central intelligence agency in Langley Virginia.

kryptos_sculptor

The sculpture comprises of four large copper plates with other elements consisting of water, wood, plants, red and green granite, white quartz, and petrified wood.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kryptos

http://www.jimsanborn.net/

http://www.milesandlincoln.com/

 

Sculpture

As part of my interim assessment and exploring materials I have decided to look at renowned contemporary sculptors and the materials they use or have used as a starting point.

Renowned contemporary sculptors include ..

Robert Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) Painter, Sculptor and Graphic artist. Rauschenberg created sculptures in non traditional materials in the 1950’s. Robert recycled junk from the streets of New York city, and mixed with paint and called them ‘combines’. Best known for the pop art movement.

 

http://www.biography.com/people/robert-rauschenberg-9452410

 

Jasper Johns (born May 15, 1930) Painter, Sculptor and printmaker.

“Flag,” a painting in encaustic (a technique that uses pigments mixed with melted wax).

 

Jasper Johns first sculpture was in 1958 sculpmetal ‘lightbulb’

jasper-johns

What is SculptMetal™?
SculptMetal™ is a Composite of metal and minerals bonded with advanced polymers and reinforced with continuous Carbon/Kevlar™/Glass fibers. The surface is finished to resemble bronze, nickel, iron and other metals. The matrix is composed of 50% recycled material. Various patina or antiquing techniques are applied and the completed items is sealed in a clear coat finish. SculptMetal™ can be painted to match any color.

http://www.pineapplegrove.com/PRODUCTS-SculptMetal.asp

The subject of the sculptures, with one exception, is Johns’ classic grid of the numerals 0 through 9. Johns makes the sculptures in wax first, working the surfaces in a complex pattern of textures, often adding collaged elements such as a key, impressions of newsprint, a cast of Merce Cunningham’s foot, or one of his own hand. He then casts them in bronze, aluminium, or silver and, finally, applies a unique patina to each. http://www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/exhibitions/2011-05-07_jasper-johns/Johns Sculptures http://www.http://www.walkerart.org/collections/artworks/flashlightbiography.com/people/jasper-johns-9355664

 

Louise Bourgeois  (25 December 1911 – 31 May 2010) was a French-American artist.

 

Best known for her large-scale sculpture and installation art. Bourgeois was also a prolific painter and printmaker. She explored a variety of themes over the course of her long career including domesticity and the family, sexuality and the body, as well as death and the subconscious. Although Bourgeois exhibited with the Abstract Expressionists and her work has much in common with Surrealism and Feminist art, she was not formally affiliated with a particular artistic movement. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/louise-bourgeois-2351

Her work in the 1940s was constructed from junkyard scraps and driftwood which she used to carve upright wood sculptures. In 1954, Bourgeois joined the American Abstract Artists Group, with several contemporaries, among them Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt. At this time she also befriended the artists Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, and Jackson Pollock.[8] As part of the American Abstract Artists Group, Bourgeois made the transition from wood and upright structures to marble, plaster and bronze as she investigated concerns like fear, vulnerability and loss of control. Bourgeois aligned herself with activists and became a member of the Fight Censorship Group, a feminist anti-censorship collective founded by fellow artist Anita Steckel. In the 1970s, the group defended the use of sexual imagery in artwork.[13] Steckel argued, “If the erect penis is not wholesome enough to go into museums, it should not be considered wholesome enough to go into women.”[14] Bourgeois received her first retrospective in 1982, by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Until then, she had been a peripheral figure in art whose work was more admired than acclaimed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Bourgeois

 

Anish Kapoor  (born 12 March 1954) is a British-Indian sculptor

Sir Anish Kapoor, CBE RA  (born 12 March 1954) is a British-Indian sculptor. Born in Bombay, Kapoor has lived and worked in London since the early 1970s when he moved to study art, first at the Hornsey College of Art and later at the Chelsea School of Art and Design.

In 1991 he received the Turner Prize and in 2002 received the Unilever Commission for the Turbine Hall at Tate Modern. Notable public sculptures include Cloud Gate (colloquially known as “the Bean”) in Chicago’s Millennium Park; Sky Mirror, exhibited at the Rockefeller Centre in New York City in 2006 and Kensington Gardens in London in 2010; Temenos, at Middle haven, Middlesbrough; Leviathan, at the Grand Palais in Paris in 2011; and ArcelorMittal Orbit, commissioned as a permanent artwork for London’s Olympic Park and completed in 2012. Kapoor received a knighthood in the 2013 Birthday Honours for services to visual arts. He was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Oxford in 2014. In 2012 he was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Indian government which is India’s 3rd highest civilian award. In 2016 he was announced as a recipient of the LennonOno Grant for Peace. He owns exclusive rights to use Vantablack, the blackest substance known, for artistic purposes. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/anish-kapoor-1384

 

Damien Hirst  ( June 7, 1965.)

British artist Damien Hirst has shocked and surprised the art world with his unusual works, including glass displays of dead animals and medicine cabinet sculptures.

A successful and controversial artist, Damien Hirst was born in Bristol, England. He emerged as a leading figure in the Young British Artists movement in the late 1980s and 1990s. His works, which include dead animal displays and spin-art paintings, have sold for exceptionally high prices. Hirst is one of the wealthiest artists living today. works include..

The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

Beautiful Inside My Head Forever

“For the Love of God,” a glittering, diamond-encrusted skull made of platinum.

thjpahypdd

The Golden Calf, an animal with 18-carat gold horns and hooves, preserved in formaldehyde.prt25563

http://www.biography.com/people/damien-hirst-20683781#early-years

http://www.biography.com/people/damien-hirst-20683781#business-of-art–

 

Jeff Koons  (born January 21, 1955)

An American artist known for working with popular culture subjects and his reproductions of banal objects—such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-finish surfaces.

 

Banality (sculpture series) Most of the sculptures are made of porcelain

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jackson_and_Bubbles

Antony Gormley

Sir Antony Mark David Gormley, OBE (born 30 August 1950)[1] is a British sculptor.[1] His best known works include the Angel of the North, a public sculpture in Gateshead in the North of England, commissioned in 1994 and erected in February 1998, Another Place on Crosby Beach near Liverpool, and Event Horizon, a multi-part site installation which premiered in London in 2007, around Madison Square in New York City, in 2010, in São Paulo, in 2012, and in Hong Kong in 2015-16.

Almost all his work takes the human body as its subject, with his own body used in many works as the basis for metal casts.

stacked cubes of weathered iron

 

untitledIn 2008 The Daily Telegraph ranked Gormley number 4 in their list of the “100 most powerful people in British culture“.[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antony_Gormley

Takashi Murakami (February 1, 1962) is a Japanese contemporary artist. He works in fine arts media (such as painting and sculpture) as well as commercial media (such as fashion, merchandise, and animation) and is known for blurring the line between high and low arts. Murakami’s art encompasses a wide range of mediums and is generally described as super flat. His work has been noted for its use of colour, incorporation of motifs from Japanese traditional and popular culture, flat/glossy surfaces, and content that could be described at once as “cute,” “psychedelic,” or “satirical” and his sculptures made from moulded plastic.. Among his most famous recurring motifs are smiling flowers, iconic characters, mushrooms, skulls, Buddhist iconography, and the sexual complexes of otaku culture.

He has also produced sculptures, balloons, ‘all-over’ wallpaper installations, animated works, prints, posters, and assorted merchandise.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takashi_Murakami

 

Artist Research 

Pinterest boards created for artist research   http://pin.it/Ggtj9vN

http://pin.it/LVEat6R

http://pin.it/PxeJtMd

LUCY SPARROW 

TEXTILES instalation artist from Bath, creates a body of work consisting of 4000 plus pieces made entirely out of felt. Installations have been in the form of a corner shop, gun store and a full sex shop. Lucy is currently working on a sandwich shop like subway.

'The Cornershop' SOLD

https://sewyoursoul.co.uk/about/

 

GUY CATLING

is a graphic designer from Essex United Kingdom. Focusing mostly on collage work, he takes old photos and makes them new again. Drawing inspiration from his surroundings and using old war photos, Guy creates bright contrasting works.

http://emptylighthouse.com/guy-catling-and-peculiar-collages

New Graphic Design

jumpers.

DS110.

balloons.

coats.

power.

 

https://guycatling.carbonmade.com/

 

ANGELA YUEN

Is a young and talented artist currently living in Hong Kong. Her sculptures represent imaginary Hong Kong skylines. She creates installations by hanging her pieces so they can cast a shadow of the skyline onto the wall. Yuen has collected objects and crafts found in the Yau Me Tei / Kowloon district from as many locals and family run stores as she could possibly find. Her work includes items like plastic toys, as they represent a joyous reminder of what has remained in the district. Each and every object portrays both struggle and self reliance of Hong Kong trades and its people.

http://www.widewalls.ch/artist/angela-yuen/


ANTHONY GORMLEY

British sculptor and installation artist. OBE, Turner prize winner,, Born 30th August 1950 London. Creator of Angel of the North, public sculpture, Event Horizon, Crosby beach, Bread. 

MEAN, 2016EXPANSION FIELD, 2014VESSEL, 2012

ANGEL OF THE NORTH [1/20 maquette]

 

 

http://www.antonygormley.com/sculpture/chronology

JONATHAN YEO

Portrait artist much in demand with prince philip, Tony Blair, Dennis Hope,  Nicola Kid they have all sat for him. https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=jonathan+yeo&FORM=HDRSC2

 

MICHAEL CRAIG MARTIN

Irish contemporary Conceptual artist and painter.Michael Craig-Martin was born in Dublin Ireland in 1941. He grew up and was educated in the United States, studying Fine Art at the Yale School of Art and Architecture. He has lived and worked in Britain since 1966. His first solo exhibition was at the Rowan Gallery, London, in 1969. He participated in the definitive exhibition of British conceptual art, The New Art at the Hayward Gallery in 1972. His best known works include An oak tree of 1973, in which he claimed to have changed a glass of water into an oak tree; his large-scale black and white wall drawings; and his intensely coloured paintings, installations, and commissions, including the European Investment Bank in Luxembourg, the Laban Dance Centre in London (in collaboration with Herzog and deMeuron), the DLR station at Woolwich Arsenal, and, most recently, the HDI Gerling Headquarters in Hannover. Over the past forty-two years he has had numerous exhibitions and installations in galleries and museums across the world. Craig-Martin is well known to have been an influential teacher at Goldsmiths College, London. He was a Tate Trustee from 1989 to 1999, was awarded a CBE in 2000 and was elected an RA in 2006. http://www.michaelcraigmartin.co.uk/about#/biography-1/

thf9fgyj1kthktmasnngthb74deztw


MICHAEL EDEN


Michael Eden is a maker whose work sits at the intersection of craft, design and art, exploring contemporary themes through the redesign of historical, culturally familiar objects utilising digital manufacturing and materials.Through this he investigates the relationship between hand and digital tools.  He is particularly interested in how the tacit knowledge and sensibility to the 3 dimensional object, developed through extended ceramic practice can affect and influence the approach to the creation of objects using digital technology.

A tiny Wedgwoodn't Tureen, 2014

http://www.michael-eden.com/about/

Glenn Doyle

Glenn has been perfecting the art of wire sculpting for many years, resulting in the production of some of the most detailed sculpted pieces in Australia. Some of his work is on permanent display at the Archaeological Dig, Cumberland St. The Rocks in Sydney. A variety of pieces are exhibited and for sale at The Arts & Crafts Society of NSW gallery in George St., The Rocks in Sydney. 

http://www.glenndoylewiresculptures.com/

Sophie Ryder

Sophie Ryder was born in London, England, in 1963. During her childhood, her French mother travelled to Provence in the south of France where the family spent the entire summer.  She studied Combined Arts at the Royal Academy of Arts where, while obtaining her diploma in painting, she was encouraged by fellow artist to develop her sculpture. Inspired by Picasso, Goya and Henry Moore, she famously developed the Lady Hare as a counterpart to Ancient Greek mythology’s Minotaur. 

Sophie Ryder’s world is one of mystical creatures, animals and hybrid beings made from sawdust, wet plaster, old machine parts and toys, weld joins and angle grinders, wire ‘pancakes’, torn scraps of paper, charcoal sticks and acid baths.

http://www.sophie-ryder.com/sophie-ryder

 David Oliveira

 

Aden Hynes isn’t well known but owns a company called The sculpture studios where he designs and creates various sculpture using Styrofoam sculpting, fibre glass mouldings, Polystyrene carving and Scenic sculpting bespoke creations for stage, theatre, exhibition or media and advertising.  (fibreglass mould making, glass fibre, plaster, concrete, bronze finish) http://www.sculpturestudios.co.uk/default.asp?textpage=home

 

a

Bronwyn Joy Oliver (22 February 1959 – 11 July 2006) was an Australian sculptor who worked primarily in metal

a copper sculpture comprising seven segments wrought out of undulating copper wire, standing beneath a cluster of palm treesA wire sculpture shaped like a bird feather, silhouetted against the skyA three metre-diameter globe-shaped bronze sculpture fabricated out of brazed copper alloy wire

Oliver was not one to intellectualise her creativity: she preferred to talk about the process of creating her artworks rather than their meanings.[4] Asked about how she approached her art, she stated:

https://www.saatchiart.com/all?query=bronwyn+joy+oliver+sculpture

My work is about structure and order. It is a pursuit of a kind of logic: a formal, sculptural logic and poetic logic. It is a conceptual and physical process of building and taking away at the same time. I set out to strip the ideas and associations down to (physically and metaphorically) just the bones, exposing the life still held inside

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronwyn_Oliver

 

Michael Eden- Maker

 

Michael creates 3D Historical styled Digitally manufactured Vessels that resemble the intricate details in Chinese ceramics, Baroque Architecture and Antique ceramic vases.

We were lucky enough for Michael to come and Lecture to us about his personal journey.

1972-1974 Michael was a Young man starting at Blackburn Tech doing Foundation, he knew he had creative potential but didn’t know he wanted to do. Michael went on to learn Industrial design at Leeds and he explored materials and processes but dropped out after a year. In 1981 -2006 Michael had a successful well established ceramic business with his wife Victoria making functional slipware even writing and publishing a successful book called Slipware: Contemporary approaches. Michael was always exploring ideas with visual perception, abstract qualities, function and engagement with objects.

Michael went on to learn HTML coding so that he could develop a website for the business as he was a self-confessed tech geek and had always been good at maths and Geometry, he didn’t want to leave it to just pay someone else to do a website and this was when something changed for him and it opened up a part of his brain that made him think in a  different way. Michael became interested in how technology could be used in other ways such as in ceramics.

After a 30 year gap Michael applied to The Royal College of Art where he would research, explore and expand his ideas, and begin to develop and create the impossible, bridging the gap and bringing Technology, code and ceramics together and fulfilling the idea of a transition of new visual perception in his final project and prize-winning RSA piece with a nod to one of Michael’s inspirational idols the first fathers of the industrial revolution, illustrator and innovator Josiah Wedgwood.

“Michael is now  One of the leading proponents in the field his research entitled “The Hand and the Glove: actual and virtual explorations of the ceramic container” at the Royal College of Art explores the use of additive manufacturing in the context of traditional ceramics making.” https://www.shapeways.com/blog/archives/420-michael-edens-3d-printed-artworks.html

Using a combination of Michael’s 2D drawings, a narrative, Rhino 3D CAD software, Rapid prototyping (Zed core 3D Powder printer) and an innovative ceramic material that didn’t need firing,  Michael reproduced an iconic ceramic object from the first industrial revolution in a way that was impossible in the early 1800s. Michael created ‘ Wedgewoodn’t’ a digital technology mastered Vessel that would be extremely difficult to make by hand.

“The delicately pierced surface is inspired by bone, refering to natural objects used by wedgewood and his contemporaries as the inspiration for many of the designs”.  https://www.sculpteo.com/blog/2012/03/09/an-interview-with-michael-eden-master-of-ceramics-and-3d-printing/

wedgwoodnt3

Michael showed us some pictures of work he has done since his original breakthrough piece. The original ‘wedgewoodn’t tureen’  has been replicated and displayed in an array of Traditional and non traditional bright colours such as Lemon, Pink and Orange twist. Michael has also reproduced them to look like copper and bronze.

 

fe50d-wedgwoodn27t-bronze“This is a new version of my first digital piece, which I created as my final piece at the Royal College of Art back in 2008.

It is a small step forward, as the making of this piece combines the 3000+ year old process of lost wax casting and ‘post-industrial’ manufacturing.

Over the past couple of years, I have been keen to explore hybrid making techniques as I think there is enormous creative potential in bringing together ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ ways of making.

This way of approaching the creation of an artwork also helps to challenge the notion that these making techniques are mutually incompatible.

So I hope that this small Wedgwoodn’t Tureen helps to bridge the gap””

http://www.michael-eden.com/edenceramics/

Michael talked about other works and anecdotes’ surrounding some of the vessels he has made since. We saw pictures of the Voxel and the story about engaging with a traditional vase seen through 3d virtual tour and zooming in on the object that inspired him at the Palace of Fontainebleau near Paris.

voxel-vessel-1

The Internet is a place where we spend increasing amounts of time. We go there to talk to our friends, to play, to learn and to explore. It’s a place where space and time become blurred and the actual, physical world mixes with the virtual.

Google allows us to explore the world as time-travellers to the recent past, floating through streets on the other side of the world. The Google Art Project allows us to walk through galleries and museums, and zoom in on the brush strokes of our favourite paintings. Why queue for the Uffizi when we can stroll through the empty galleries from the comfort of our armchairs?

It is an extraordinary technical achievement, a very useful tool, but it’s not the real thing, you can’t smell the oil paint and you can’t quite walk all the way round the sculptures. It is a 2 dimensional interpretation of the real world.

There is a vast amount of information available at the click of a mouse and with the development of software programmes and Apps some of that information can be visualised in different ways, including translating it from 2D to 3D.

Arte Dolum was created to explore these issues

http://www.michael-eden.com/2011-2013/

Arte Dolum 2013

Arte Dolum, 2013

Arte Dolum, 2013

Tall Bloom and Bloom vessels

Image result for michael eden bronzeBloom 2014

always asking himself can I take this further and never satisfied Michael created

Mnemosyne 2011

Image result for michael eden bronze

To begin with, I generated a QR code and then extruded the resulting 2-dimensional image into a 3-dimensional form using CAD software. This was then given the shape of a traditional jewellery box.

So the idea is that the owner can scan the Mnemosyne with a Smart phone barcode reader App, which then connects to a website page where stories can be told, memories stored, photos deposited, sounds locked away, thereby creating a simultaneous actual and virtual experience.   http://www.michael-eden.com/2011-2013/cxsf1td8dshznam7djuzf6a6fviqzx./

Michael is without a doubt my most favourite lecture this semester. He has accomplished so much so quickly, he took a brilliant idea along with his Maths, Cad software, coding and 25 years of pottery skills and pushed himself to create the impossible and still pushing himself to create something better than the last always pushing the boundaries. His creations are so Aesthetically pleasing and I love the stories behind the designs and I am in awe of the way his brain works.

Michaels vessels are time consuming, each vessels design takes at least 150 hours to create in the software,  and I can imagine it would be quite expensive to make to.

My favourite pieces were the Digital pixelated faces on the ‘ Aphrodite’ and the ‘Watt vase’.

Aphrodite, 2016The Watt Vase

and the detail in the ‘Soho’.

Soho - detailSoho

I really loved the narratives behind the design details in these vessels the most, especially the foxgloves being used as a design for digoxin which I have had to use for my heart condition in the past.

UNIT 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Www.collections.vam.ac.uk  (31/10/16)

Www.Pinterest.com (1/11/16)

Ethan Harper  Art.Co.uk (1/11/16)
http://www.seandower.com/SeanDowerCVBio.html (1/11/16)

http://www.emptykingdom.com/featured/guy-catling/  (3/11/16)

(www.seandower.com/SeanDowerCVBio.html) ( 1/11/16)

(https://vimeo.com/77964663)  (10/11/16)

http://www.widewalls.ch/artist/angela-yuen/ (3/11/16)

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rijksakademie_van_beeldende_kunsten (1/11/16)

http://www.seandower.com/Sean%20Dower%20Sculpture.html#bookpyre (1/11/16)

http://www.eca.ed.ac.uk/school-of-art/dean-hughes (1/11/16)
http://www.michael-eden.com/  20/12/16) (12/12/16)

https://www.sculpteo.com/blog/2012/03/09/an-interview-with-michael-eden-master-of-ceramics-and-3d-printing/ (10/12/16))
https://jamieholman.com/category/about/ (20/12/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/interior-and-spatial-designer  (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/fine-artist (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/ceramics-designer (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/printmaker (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/art-therapist (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/textile-designer (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/exhibition-designer (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/photographer (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/jobs-and-work-experience/job-sectors/creative-arts-and-design/graduate-jobs-in-creative-arts-and-design (13/11/16)

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/jobs-and-work-experience/job-sectors/creative-arts-and-design/overview-of-the-creative-arts-sector-in-the-uk  (13/11/16)

https://www.vam.ac.uk/  (3/011/16)

https://www.ucasprogress.com/authentication/logon (05/11/16)

ps://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/jan/02/john-berger-art-critic-and-author-dies-aged-90

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alchemy_in_art_and_entertainment (20/11/16)

https://www.shapeways.com/blog/archives/420-michael-edens-3d-printed-artworks.html (08/01/17)

http://www.glenndoylewiresculptures.com/ (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronwyn_Oliver (08/01/17)

http://www.sophie-ryder.com/sophie-ryder (08/01/17)

https://www.saatchiart.com/davidoliveira (08/01/17)

http://www.sculpturestudios.co.uk/default.asp?textpage=home (08/01/17)

http://www.pineapplegrove.com/PRODUCTS-SculptMetal.asp (08/01/17)

http://www.michael-eden.com/videos/ (08/01/17)

http://www.biography.com/people/robert-rauschenberg-9452410 (08/01/17)

http://www.biography.com/people/jasper-johns-9355664 (08/01/17)

http://www.davidmigueloliveira.blogspot.com (08/01/17)

https://www.ronifeinstein.com/book/new-thoughts-for-jasper-johns-sculpture/ (08/01/17)

http://www.michaelcraigmartin.co.uk/about#/biography-1/ (08/01/17)

http://www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/exhibitions/2011-05-07_jasper-johns/ (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper_Johns (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Rauschenberg (08/01/17)

http://www.walkerart.org/collections/artworks/flashlight (08/01/17)

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/louise-bourgeois-2351 (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Bourgeois (08/01/17)

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/anish-kapoor-1384 (08/01/17)

http://www.biography.com/people/damien-hirst-20683781#early- (08/01/17)yearshttp://www.biography.com/people/damien-hirst-20683781#business-of-art– (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jackson_and_Bubbles (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antony_Gormley (08/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takashi_Murakami (08/01/17)

http://www.vam.ac.uk/blog/artists-residence-va/laser-cutter (08/01/17)

http://makingrooms.org/equipment/laser-cutter/ (24/01/17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_mapping)  (24/01/17)

http://blackburnisopen.co.uk/spaces/the-making-rooms/  (24/01/17)

http://www.angielewin.co.uk/  (23/01/17)

http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/exhibitions/womenartists/artist_videos.aspx (24/01/17)

http://www.davidmigueloliveira.blogspot.com (13/11/16)

http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/toxic-metal-health-dangers-lead/ (06/02/17)

http://inventorspot.com/articles/zen_and_the_shadow_art_of_the_riddled_table_17001 (06/02/17)